Cylontology = the Cylon religious beliefs (I wish I knew who to give credit to for this one because it's hilarious).
Well, I just came up with the term "The Church Of Cylontology" a day or so ago to describe the religious dogma Six is always whispering into Baltar's ear, but that probably doesn't mean much; in my first post to the "Pegasus" episode thread (after reading the three pages or so of comments that had been posted so far) I came up with both "Admiral Ro" and PegaSix", only to find that by the time I finished writing, spellchecked, & posted it, both terms had already cropped up in several different posts that were made in the interim. Sometimes the gag is so obvious it's pointless for any one person to try to take credit for it.
Another example:Countdown To Extinction
: a corollary to the Whiteboard of Extinction (which was seen extensively last season but has only made one brief appearance in the background so far this season), this is the ever-changing number of survivors listed in the show's opening credits each week (starting in the 2nd season). (I also came up with this one, and to be honest I don't think I've seen anyone but myself use it on TWoP, but I've also seen it used on several other BSG websites and I doubt they all got it from me).
A bit of further clarification on the Boomers:
The Boomer who was a crewmember on the Galactica all throughout the miniseries & first season who honestly didn't know she was a cylon was referred to as GalBoomer and later CorpseBoomer or DeadBoomer (sorry if I spoiled anything there).
The fully self-aware Boomer who showed up on Carprica to try to make Babies with Helo (who was also stranded there) was referred to as CapBoomer and later sometimes PregoBoomer or PregBoomer.
Potential confusion arises from the fact that at this point the Galactica Boomer is dead and the Carprica Boomer is now on Galactica. Fortunately since there's now only one of them and thus no need to distinguish between them we can usually just say "Boomer". Although sometimes when comparing the differences between the two of them or something, we still have to dig up the old "DeadBoomer" & "PregoBoomer" handles.
Another possible source of confusion that's actually the show's fault is the ever increasing choice of names & Callsigns they give us for some characters (particularly a slew of secondary characters who were all suddenly given full names in the recent episode "The Final Cut" which many here immediately started using). This can be particularly confusing on the show itself, where the President is much more likely to refer to "Lt. Valeri" than "Sharron" or "Boomer" (although "that thing" is still the most likely bet).
Some examples (quotes are pilots callsigns):
"Apollo" = Lee = Captain
Adama (*not* the big scary looking dude in charge, but his son)
"Starbuck" = Kira = Lt. Thrace
"Boomer" = Sharron = Lt. Valeri = "it"
"Helo" = Carl Agarthon
Gaeta = Felix
Dualla = Anastesia =Dee
PegaSix = Gina (never mentioned on the show so far but often used here, "Gina" is the name of the Pegasus' model Six Cylon according to Moore's Podcast)
The "Six" that only Baltar sees used to claim to be the manifestation of a cylon Chip in his brain and was often called ChipSix, recently the issue has become cloudier and she seems to have sprouted several new nicknames reflecting this uncertainty.
Roslin = Laura = Prez
And finally, Commander
Adama's first name is Bill, but the only one either here or on the show itself who's had the guts to actually call him that is Ellen Tigh.